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About The Services EIMC provide

Endoscopic Department

The Endoscopy Department of EIMC is located in Nicosia Polyclinic and fully equipped to perform endoscopic examinations with absolute safety. The Endoscopic Department performs diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic operations by the pulmonologists of EIMC and associate gastroenterologists. With the help of our excellent nursing staff, all endoscopic operations are done in the best possible way, with the sole aim being the well-being of our patients!

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Endoscopy is the process that enables the Doctor to look inside the human body with the use of an endoscope, a slender and tubular instrument with an illuminated, guided video camera. Since this technique allows the doctor to insert the endoscope directly into the area of interest, the doctor can perform procedures like visual diagnosis, biopsies, and or removal of polyps if needs be. There are various kinds of endoscopies for different body areas, such as bronchoscopy, gastroscopy, and colonoscopy.


Bronchoscopy is the endoscopic method used by doctors to have a look at the inside of the patient’s airways for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The doctor inserts the Bronchoscope into the patient’s airways through the nose or mouth (and rarely through a tracheostomy) to operate with anomalies such as tumors, bleeding, foreign bodies, or inflammation. The Bronchoscope is an advanced flexible device that contains lighting with video equipment to enable the doctor to make a more precise examination and allow them to collect specimens from inside the lungs.

  • When does a patient need a bronchoscopy?
    The main reason is a continuing cough, illness or the doctor identified something unusual on an X-ray or other kind of test. Of course, as already mentioned, it can be used for other anomalies.
  • Requirement before and after Bronchoscopy:
    You may need to stop taking some anticoagulants a few days before the test, but it is best to ask your doctor. Eat a light dinner the night before and NEVER eat or drink anything on the morning of the test. You will also need to remove any dentures, hearing aids, contact lenses, or eyeglasses you may be wearing. At the end of the test, you will be able to eat or drink three hours later. It is also essential to be accompanied by a relative or a friend since you will not drive after the examination.

Endobronchial Ultrasound

Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is a bronchoscopy method that uses ultrasound to imagine structures close to the central airways (linear EBUS) and lung parenchyma (radial probe EBUS). EBUS is a minimally invasive but highly effective procedure used to diagnose lung cancer, infections, and other diseases, causing enlarged lymph nodes in the chest. It allows Doctors to perform a method known as transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) to get a tissue or fluid samples from the lungs and surrounding lymph nodes without conventional surgery. Samples are used to diagnose and stage lung cancer, detect infections, and identify inflammatory diseases that affect the lungs, such as sarcoidosis or cancers like lymphoma.

  • Why does a patient need an EBUS
    The main reason is that the doctor identified something unusual on an X-ray or other kind of test, or simply not feeling well for some time.
  • Requirements before and after EBUS:
    You may need to stop taking some anticoagulants a few days before the test, but it is best to ask your doctor. Eat a light dinner the night before and NEVER eat or drink anything on the morning of the test. You will also need to remove any dentures, hearing aids, contact lenses, or eyeglasses you may be wearing. At the end of the test, you will be able to eat or drink three hours later. It is also essential to be accompanied by a relative or a friend, since it is not advisable to drive after the examination.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea is best described as a sleep disorder that individuals have during their sleep and can be analyzed with an overnight sleep study. More specific is the sleep disorder that people face during sleep, which pauses in breathing or when low breathing occurs more often than usual. Every pause or stop of breathing can last from a few seconds up to a few minutes, and they might happen several times a night. This disorder, commonly known as snoring, and those usually affected, experience sleepiness, feel tired during the day, or even are hyperactive.

There are two (2) forms of Sleep Apnea, either obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), where a blockage of airflow disrupts breathing, or central sleep apnea (CSA) where frequent unconscious breath stops or might be a combination of both. The most common is obstructive sleep apnea.

The main reasons people suffer from sleep apnea, and surprisingly most of the time are unaware of it, are overweight, allergies, family history, having a narrow upper airway, ineffective pharyngeal dilator muscle during sleep, unstable control of breathing, or airway narrowing during sleep.

The best way to treat sleep apnea is through vital lifestyle changes, meaning stopping alcohol and smoking, losing weight, or using a breathing device, or through surgery. If patients ignore or don’t pay any attention to this sleep disorder, they might face high risks of heart attack, stroke, diabetes, heart failure, irregular heartbeat, etc.

People suffering from sleep apnea in midlife have more chances of developing Alzheimer’s in older age. Also, sleep apnea is more common in men than women.

  • Why a patient needs a sleep apnea test?
    To identify the reasons for the breathing disorders during the night, as this might become vital for life.
  • Requirement before sleep apnea:
    Book an appointment with your pulmonologist, requesting the sleep apnea test.

Spirometry - Spirometer

Spirometry is a commonly used test, performed by pulmonologists to assess how well lungs work by measuring how much air you inhale and exhale and how quickly you exhale. This test is used to diagnose asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other conditions that affect breathing.

The equipment that pulmonologists use for this test, called a spirometer, measures the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs. A spirometer measures ventilation, the movement of air into and out of the lungs.

The result of a Spirometry test is displayed on a Spirogram, which identifies two different types of abnormal ventilation patterns, obstructive and restrictive.

  • Why a patient needs spirometry?
    A patient needs to have a Spirometry to diagnose or manage asthma, detect lung illness when having breathlessness symptoms, distinguish respiratory from cardiac disease as the cause, and measure bronchial responsiveness in patients suspected of having asthma.
  • Requirement before spirometry:
    Book an appointment with your pulmonologist, requesting the spirometry test.

Cardiogram (ECG)

ECG or electrocardiogram, as most commonly known, is the record of the electrical activity of the heart by attaching electrodes to the surface of the skin of the patient, through a machine called ECG or Electrocardiograph. Cardiologists are using this test in order to interpret the electrical signals, which are triggered by an electrical impulse, as they travel through the heart. As these signals are recorded, doctors can check the patterns between heartbeats and rhythms to diagnose various heart conditions. ECG is being used to measure the rate and regularity of heartbeats, the position, and size of the chambers, the presence of any damage on the heart, and the effects of drugs or devices used to control the heart, such as artificial pacemakers. Finally, it must be stressed out that this is a simple and painless test and the results of it can be reported on the day of the test, thus patients knows immediately their results.

  • Why does a patient need a Cardiogram (ECG)?
    An ECG is used to see how the heart is functioning and it is wise to be done in order to detect and prevent possible narrowing of the coronary arteries, a heart attack, or an irregular heartbeat like atrial fibrillation. What an ECG actually does, it records how often the heart beats (heart rate) and how regularly it beats (heart rhythm).
  • Requirement before cardiogram (ECG):
    Book an appointment with their Cardiologist, specifically requesting for the cardiogram (ECG) test.

Cardio ultrasound

Cardio ultrasound, echocardiography, echocardiogram, or echo, is the heart’s ultrasound and is one of the best preventative examinations for the detection of cardiomyopathies. This test enables cardiologists to diagnose and treat suspected heart diseases, to view the size and shape of the heart, pumping capacity, diastolic function, and other helpful information.

Additionally, stress echo may also indicate whether any chest pain or other related symptoms are associated with heart disease. The major advantage of echo is that it has no known risks or side effects and is not invasive.

Also, using a Doppler ultrasound, the doctor can accurately assess the blood flowing through the heart, and this allows doctors to check if the blood flow is normal or abnormal. With a color Doppler, Doctors can identify possible abnormal communications between the left and right sides of the heart, leaking of blood through the valves, as well as have a precise evaluation of the severity of aortic valve stenosis.

  • Why does a patient need a cardio ultrasound?
    If having symptoms such as shortness of breath or chest pain, the doctors will have to examine for potential problems with the valves or chambers of the heart.
  • Requirement before cardio ultrasound:
    Book an appointment with your cardiologist, requesting the cardio ultrasound test.

Stress Test

A stress test is a test cardiologists use to estimate a patient’s potential risks of having heart disease. It is a simple test since individuals can walk on a treadmill or pedal on a static bike, and as you go along, it gets more difficult. Through stress tests, the patient’s electrocardiogram, heart rate, and blood pressure are tracked. Therefore, the doctor can check how much a patient’s heart can operate before an abnormal rhythm starts of blood flow to the heart muscle drops; in other words, doctors can identify how the heart responds when stressed.

Although there are various stress tests, the most commonly used is the treadmill test, where doctors can check how the heart responds while being pushed.

  • Why does a patient need a stress test?
    For the doctors to assess symptoms like chest pain, shortness of breath, examine if enough blood flows in the heart, identify possible abnormal heart rhythms or coronary heart disease, and, in case the patient receives medication, check if it is working.
  • Requirement before stress test:
    Patients should not eat or drink anything for at least 4 hours before the test. It is also wise not to have anything that contains caffeine and not to take (in case patients receive any) heart medication on the day of the test unless the doctors advise you the opposite.

What is Bone Density Measurement?

Bone Density Measurement or DΕXA (Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry) is the test that uses X-rays to determine bone mass. It is considered the best test to check the bone density and is widely used to diagnose osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis is a chronic disease of bone metabolism. There is a gradual decrease in density and quality of the bone in women and men, resulting in bones becoming more brittle and thinner over time. Based on the above, there is a greater risk of bone fracture as their strength and elasticity decrease. Osteoporosis is preventable in most cases.

In general, prevention is everything; for this reason, women after menopause and men are right to perform this test, whether or not they have some bone or spine problems.

  • Why does a patient need a bone density measurement?
    The main reason to have the test is to find and follow a treatment of severe bone loss called osteoporosis and prevent fractures and disability.
  • Requirement before a bone density measurement:
    Book an appointment with their doctor, explicitly requesting the bone density measurement test. It is also wise to avoid (in the case already taking) taking calcium supplements at least for one day before the test.

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